Adventures in Theology Blog

Chase A. Thompson: Author, Pastor, Vigilante.
Y’all vs. You Guys: Differences Between Life in the South and Life in California #1

Y’all vs. You Guys: Differences Between Life in the South and Life in California #1

“It’s y’all, dad, and it makes me mad that you don’t say it!” – My Eldest Daughter, rebuking me for attempting to convert to ‘you guys.’

Howdy, Y’all! 

I am a pastor/writer that has been living in Salinas, California for all of seven weeks after spending over four decades in the heart of the Deep South: Birmingham, Alabama. Because it only takes a few weeks to fully understand a culture (wink, wink), I am endeavoring to write a series of posts that examines the differences between life in the South and life in California. Some of these posts will be quite serious, but be warned that there is much tom-foolery, and tongue in cheekery to follow. 

The hardest thing about moving over 2000 miles away from your hometown is leaving behind friends and family. I think the second hardest aspect of moving is packing and unpacking. At this point we have only eight boxes left to unpack (down from over 2.8 million) so that is a triumph of the human spirit. I was led to believe, before moving, that culture shock would be a difficult thing for our family. Since California is obviously completely different from the South, it seems reasonable that our family would have a difficult time adjusting to the pace and differences of life. Thus far, however, we have experienced very little culture shock. In fact, we have really enjoyed the California culture, and find many similarities between the people and practices of this area and those back in SEC country. Though the demographics of people are very different in my new city (78 percent Hispanic background), the behavior of people here is not massively different. People are people, as Depeche Mode once sagely observed. 

Though the similarities do outnumber the differences, there are more than a trivial amount of deviations between life in the South and life in California. For instance, we just registered our vehicles here yesterday and paid over $800 for the privilege of getting California license plates! (That same transaction in Alabama would have cost less then $200 for our modest vehicles) Gas is significantly cheaper back home also, though food prices somewhat balance out, because California, like Florida, does not tax groceries. Overall, life is mostly more expensive here in Cali, and there are more people, laws, taxes, fees, earthquakes, fires and skateboarders than you would find in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, etc. I could kick off this series by writing about dozens of different cultural differences, but I will focus on the single most important, most obvious, most glaring, and most divisive difference between Southern life and California life: ‘Y’all’ vs. ‘You guys’. Sharpen your pitchforks, because we’re about to get serious, y’all…er, you guys. 

For years, sociologists have understood that the greatest differentiation and separation between English speaking humans has nothing to do with skin color, politics, nor economics, but is rather a function of how a person handles the second person plural of ‘You,’ Some people express this plural of you by the contraction, ‘Y’all,’ while other people use the phrase ‘you guys,’ or ‘you all’ in the exact same way. Some people simply say ‘You,’ for both the second person singular and second person plural. Disturbingly, there are a few people that even use the abomination ‘youse guys,’ (or, worse, ‘you’uns’) but this article won’t cover that treasonous crime against the English language. In the South, people sometimes mix ‘you guys,’ ‘you all,’ and ‘y’all,’ but I would guess that ‘y’all’ is used about 85-90 percent of the time, followed by ‘you guys,’ and then ‘you all,’ Those numbers are flipped and probably more extreme in California, I believe. We have heard a few instances of ‘y’all’ use out here in the wild, but it is indeed quite rare.

According to my own highly accurate, science based surveys, Southerners use ‘y’all,’ approximately 2,700 times a day, so quite a lot. Moving west past the Y’allson-Dixon line forces one to make a choice: Should I continue y’alling everything, or should I seek to adapt to the culture and avoid certain etymological bullying? My choice has been to adapt, or at least try to. I have little problems with the principle of cultural adaption on morally neutral issues of language. My family, however, are non-adapters, and they see me as something of a linguistic Benedict Arnold. Behind closed doors, when I say ‘you guys,’ I receive a high amount of persecution from my family in the form of eye rolls, sighs, and sharp glances. The struggle is real, y’all! 

Interestingly, the good people of California have been far more tolerant and accommodating, as you might expect. They have encouraged us to continue in our use of ‘y’all,’ and have even described it as ‘charming.’ Though my daughter has been mistaken for a foreign exchange student at her high school a couple of times (true story!), she has also found that people enjoy her accent, and some students have even resolved to make ‘y’all’ a thing. Our mission of moving to California to spread the good news of ‘y’all’ is coming along quite nicely! 

5 Scientific and Completely Serious Reasons that ‘Y’all’ is superior to ‘You Guys.’

  1. ‘Y’all’ is ONE syllable, as compared to the two syllables of ‘you guys,’ and the seven or eight syllables of ‘youse guys’ and ‘you’uns.’ It is much easier to say, and wastes less energy, therefore it is more environmentally friendly. Climatologists estimate that the entire western seaboard switching to ‘y’all’ would lower global temperatures by at least 3 degrees Kelvin within a decade of adoption, permanently ending the global warming crisis, and ushering in a new era of Grammatical Enlightenment. Yes, I capitalized that phrase, because the Grammatical Enlightenment will be just as important, if not more important, than the regular Enlightenment, which we also capitalize. 

  2. ‘Y’all’ is forward thinking by being gender neutral, whereas ‘you guys’ perpetuates harmful gender stereotypes. Be on the right side of history! 

  3. ‘Y’all’ has less letters, and thus requires less ink to print than ‘you guys.’ The ‘G’ alone in you guys uses up as much ink as TWO ‘i’s!’ THINK OF THE TREES!

  4.  ‘Y’all’ can be said approximately 43 percent faster than ‘you guys.’ Not only does that use less energy (see above) but it also takes LESS TIME! Who has time to spare in this busy season of American life?? ‘You guys’ would be perfect for the early days of American history, like during the American Revolution, or World War 1, when people had the time to just sit around and chew on hay while chatting with friends in the fields. But today, we are so busy, we need to be efficient with our words. Linguists estimate that Californians could save an average of 14 minutes a day by switching to ‘y’all!’ Think about what you could do with that time- that’s four more ‘snoozes’ in the morning, or almost three full episodes per week of that show you are binging on Netflix right now. 

  5. The usage of y’all can satisfy several important grammatical functions, including a collective pronoun, an associative plural, an indefinite pronoun, and an institutional pronoun. I totally didn’t copy that sentence from somewhere else, and I absolutely know what an institutional pronoun is…who doesn’t?! 

10 quick facts about “Y’all” 

  1. ‘Y’all’ is a contraction of “you all.” The ‘ou’ has dropped out and been replaced by an apostrophe. 
  2. Though I do see the irony in speaking of proper grammar in the context of ‘y’all,’ the proper spelling and use of the word is y’all, NOT ya’ll. Ya’ll is a contraction of ‘Ya-all,’ which sounds abominable. Y’all appears ten times more often in print than other derivatives. I have a particular set of skills, and if you use ‘ya’ll’ in writing, I will find you. 
  3. ‘Y’all’ first appeared in print in 1824, so it is a modernish invention, similar to combustion engines, microprocessors, rockets ships, photon torpedoes, faster than light travel, warp-speed, etc. This means that it represents an advancement in linguistic technology, sort of like how high speed internet is an advancement over 56k modems, and Corvettes are an advancement over riding on goats. 
  4. ‘Y’all’ developed independently among South African Indian English speakers and those of a Scottish background (likely deriving from the Scottish phrase, ‘ye-aw.’) That it developed independently among two different people groups demonstrates that ‘y’all’ is a logical progression of language. 
  5. Y’all is a partial replacement for ‘Ye,’ which was commonly used in older English. “Hear ye, Hear ye,” would now be translated as, “Hear y’all, hear y’all!” (Notice the inelegance of “Hear you guys, hear you guys.”) 
  6. ‘Y’all’ is translated to ‘You lot’ in British English. (One of the few areas that British English is inferior to American English. ‘You lot’ just sounds silly) 
  7. ‘Y’all’ can be used properly when speaking to a single person, if the phrase is being used of a group of people. For instance, If I was out riding my horse around the cow patties in Alabama, and I ran into my friend Jeb, I would say this to him, “What are y’all doing for dinner tonight?” Even though I was just asking him, I am including other people in that statement. 
  8. ‘All y’all’ is the proper way to refer to large groups, or a collective of several somehow related groups. For instance, in referring to several different (but related) families, “All Y’all Clampett’s make good hoe cakes!” Or, “All Y’all Auburn fans should convert!”   (Note: I have never had an actual hoe cake, and am not really sure what it is. Also, Roll Tide.) 
  9. ‘Y’all’ is also utilized in other English speaking countries, such as the Canadian Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the Island of Saint Helena, and the Middle Eastern country Bubbastan. 
  10. The first use of ‘Y’all’ in the English printed language is this sentence, from a Texas history book, ““Why, heern as how the regerlators wur guine to cotch y‘ all and swing y‘ up to dry, us thought we’d better heave to.””  Yes, that sounds as foreign to my ears as it does to yours! 

Thanks for reading! Coming soon, I plan to write about:  Driving in California vs. The South. Fancy Waters in California vs. The South.  Southern Beaches vs. California Beaches. Cost of Living + more! 

Answering BIG Questions #2: What Must I do to be Saved? (How can I go to Heaven?)

Note: This is a simple chapter on salvation from a biblical perspective, and will seek to avoid such weighty theological terms as soteriology, supra/infralapsarianism and a detailed discussion of the ordo salutis, or order of salvation. Sometimes we over complicate things, and the article below is an attempt to be very simple, and very biblical.

Perhaps the most important question of all is centered on salvation, and how to live eternally in Heaven. This is a BIG question, and it comes in many different flavors: How do I become a Christian? How do I get saved? How can I go to Heaven when I die? How can I inherit eternal life? People in the Bible frequently asked this question in its various forms. Probably the most common answer in the church today, at least in the American church, is an answer that contains an element of praying, and an element of somehow “asking Jesus to come into your heart.” You might be surprised to discover that this formulation is not particularly biblical at all! Think about it: The most common answer that Christians give today when somebody asks them how to spend eternity in Heaven with Jesus is not really based on the Bible at all…that is a problem!

Interestingly, the Bible does not have a standard and uniform answer to the question of how to be saved. (More on that in a moment…) But there are multiple passages where the question is asked. Consider the Rich Young Ruler of Matthew 19. This was a young man who was zealous for God and had apparently lived an extremely holy life, seeking to please God by keeping all of the commandments. One day, that young man encountered Jesus, and asked Him the BIG question:

“Just then someone came up and asked Him, “Teacher, what good must I do to have eternal life?” 17 “Why do you ask Me about what is good?” He said to him. “There is only One who is good. If you want to enter into life, keep the commandments.”18 “Which ones?” he asked Him. Jesus answered: Do not murder; do not commit adultery; do not steal; do not bear false witness; 19 honor your father and your mother; and love your neighbor as yourself. 20 “I have kept all these,” the young man told Him. “What do I still lack? 21 If you want to be perfect,” Jesus said to him, “go, sell your belongings and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven. Then come, follow Me.” 22 When the young man heard that command, he went away grieving, because he had many possessions.” (Matthew 19:16-22)

How did Jesus ultimately answer the man? He told Him two things: #1 – To sell His possessions, and #2 to Follow Jesus. Is this THE definitive answer to the question of how to be saved? Must all who want to inherit eternal life sell all of their possessions and then follow Jesus?

The same question is asked again in Acts 2. Peter has just preached his Pentecost sermon to thousands of people. Many of them are cut to the heart, and they approach him and ask the big question – what should they do? How can they be saved? Note how Peter’s answer is somewhat different from Jesus’ answer:

“When they heard this, they came under deep conviction and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles: “Brothers, what must we do?” 38 “Repent,” Peter said to them, “and be baptized, each of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 39 For the promise is for you and for your children, and for all who are far off, as many as the Lord our God will call.” 40 And with many other words he testified and strongly urged them, saying, “Be saved from this corrupt generation!” 41 So those who accepted his message were baptized, and that day about 3,000 people were added to them.” (Acts 2:37-41)

When Peter is asked the question, his response is slightly different than Jesus’ response to the Rich Young Ruler. This time, Peter tells those asking the question to #1 Repent and #2 Be baptized in the name of Jesus. Does this represent a contradiction between what Peter said and what Jesus said? Absolutely not, but there is an important reason for the differences. Before we discuss that, however, let’s look at yet another passage. This time involving the apostle Paul:

“Then the jailer called for lights, rushed in, and fell down trembling before Paul and Silas. 30 Then he escorted them out and said, “Sirs, what must I do to be saved?” 31 So they said, “Believe on the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved—you and your household.” 32 Then they spoke the message of the Lord to him along with everyone in his house. 33 He took them the same hour of the night and washed their wounds. Right away he and all his family were baptized. 34 He brought them into his house, set a meal before them, and rejoiced because he had believed God with his entire household.” (Acts 16:29-34)

Yet another different answer! This time, when Paul answers the BIG question, there is no mention of baptism OR selling all of one’s possessions OR repenting, only that belief in Jesus is the necessary thing. Here’s one more Scripture from Paul that clearly states what a person needs in order to be saved:

“If you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.” (Romans 10:9)

In Romans 10:9, confession is a key element, but baptism, repentance, and selling possessions are missing. On the surface, this could be quite confusing – especially if we are looking for the steps to be saved – why doesn’t the Bible have ONE simple formula for us to follow and for Christians to tell the world about? And that question brings us to the crux of the issue: The reason the Bible never gives a consistent series of steps to salvation is because there isn’t a formula to be saved! There aren’t steps that, by carrying them out, we can ensure salvation. There does not exist a certain set of instructions that, when followed properly, will ensure that somebody has eternal life. It doesn’t work that way at all! JESUS is at the center of every answer to every salvation question asked in the Bible. Follow Jesus, believe Jesus, confess Jesus, be baptized into Jesus, etc. It is all about Jesus, and what He has done! Consider Paul’s famous description of salvation in Ephesians:

“In the coming ages He might display the immeasurable riches of His grace through His kindness to us in Christ Jesus. For you are saved by grace through faith, and this is not from yourselves; it is God’s gift— 9 not from works, so that no one can boast.” (Ephesians 2:8-9)

Salvation is NOT by works. Not by a series of steps. Not by a series of activities. Salvation is found in a PERSON. You aren’t saved because you prayed a prayer or saved because you were baptized, or saved because you did what a pastor asked, and took a few steps down to the altar at a front of the church. NONE of those things are sufficient for salvation. Salvation requires a savior. Rescuing requires a rescuer.

Think about it this way – you are on a boat that sinks in a fierce storm, and you are plunged into 40 degree waters. The waves violently toss you about, and you are at the absolute end of your strength and in desperate need of rescue. Your arms are almost useless, and your lungs are beginning to fill with water. Which is a better scenario: #1 A Coast Guard Cutter pulls up, and an officer shouts down instructions to you as to what YOU must DO to save yourself from the water. OR #2: A Coast Guard Cutter pulls up, and a rescue diver is lowered down to you, and he grabs you and pulls you to safety? Though not all analogies are perfect, the point of this one is that a person drowning in the water does not need instruction on what to do in order to save themselves, they need a rescuer. A person lost in sin doesn’t need a few steps to follow to make themselves acceptable to God and worthy of eternal life – they need a Rescuer, Jesus, to save them completely. The focus is not on the steps to be saved, it is on the Savior!

THAT is why the Bible never gives the same instructions on what must be done for somebody to be saved…because it is NOT about what YOU must do for salvation – it is about Jesus and what HE has already done. Consider the words of Acts 4:12, “There is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to people, and we must be saved by it.” Jesus is the ONLY way to salvation. Apart from Jesus, prayer is meaningless, baptism is just water, repentance has no power, and selling all of your goods may be noble, but it won’t save your soul.

“So,” I hear you asking, “What does all of this mean? What should I do??” It is a fair question. The answer is: Look to Jesus, and live! Jesus is the Root of salvation (Revelation 22:16), He is the Way of salvation (John 14:6), He is the Door of salvation (John 10:9) and He is the beginning and end of salvation (Revelation 1:8.) Go to Jesus, and He will give you rest. (Matthew 11:28) Go to Jesus, and He will give you life. (John 14:6) Go to Jesus, and He will give you living water that will spring up into eternal life! (John 4:14)

I will close with this one last simple verse, which is an amazing and precious promise of Jesus. You may bet your life on it, and I hope you do. John 6:40, “For this is the will of My Father: that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day.” Yes! It is as simple as that, according to the Master Himself. LOOK to Him and BELIEVE. Should you get baptized? Absolutely, it is a command, but it doesn’t save you. Should you repent, and turn away from your sins? YES, you must, but repentance doesn’t save you, Jesus does. Should you follow the commands of God? Yes! in gratitude for salvation, but NOT because you think that obeying God’s law has the power to save you. Look to Jesus, and Believe the gospel – the good news that a perfect and sinless Jesus died the death of a sinner – you and I! – on the cross, to pay the price for our sin, so that we could have eternal life forever in Heaven.

  “I remember I concluded preaching at Exeter Hall with these three words, “Jesus, Jesus, Jesus!” and I think I will conclude my sermon of this morning with the same words, but not till I have spoken to one poor forlorn soul who is standing over there, wondering whether there is mercy for him. He says, “It is well enough, sir, to say, ‘Look to Jesus,’ but suppose you cannot look? If your eye is blind—what then?” Oh I my poor brother, turn your restless eyeballs to the cross, and that light which gives light to them that see, shall give eyesight to them that are blind. Oh! if thou canst not believe this morning, look and consider, and weigh the matter, and in weighing and reflecting thou shalt be helped to believe. He asks nothing of thee; he bids thee now believe that he died for thee. If to-day thou feelest thyself a lost, guilty sinner, all he asks is that thou wouldest believe on him; that is to say, trust him, confide in him. Is it not little he asks? And yet it is more than any of us are prepared to give, except the Spirit hath made us willing. Come, cast yourselves upon him; fall flat on his promise; sink or swim, confide in him, and you cannot guess the joy that you shall feel in that one instant that you believe on him. Were there not some of you impressed last Sabbath day, and you have been anxious all the week? Oh! I hope I have brought a good message to you this morning for your comfort. “Look unto me and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth,” saith Christ, “for I am God, and beside me there is none else.” Look ye now, and looking ye shall live. May every blessing rest upon you, and may each go away to think of that one person whom we love, even Jesus—Jesus—Jesus!” Charles Spurgeon sermon, “Looking Unto Jesus” May 23, 1858

“There are, in the end, only two questions to ask as we read the Bible: Is it about me? Or is it about Jesus? In other words, is the Bible basically about what I must do orabout what he has done? Consider the story of David and Goliath. If I read David and Goliath as a story that gives me an example to follow, then the story is really about me. It is an exhortation that I must summon up the faith and courage to fight the giants in my life. But if I accept that the Bible is ultimately about the Lord and his salvation, and if I read the David and Goliath text in that light, it throws a multitude of things into sharp relief! The very point of the Old Testament passage is that the Israelites could not face the giant themselves. Instead, they needed a champion who would fight in their place — a substitute who would face the deadly peril in their stead. And the substitute that God provided is not a strong person but a weak one — a young boy, too small to wear a suit of armor. Yet God used the deliverer’s weakness as the very means to bring about the destruction of the laughing, overconfident Goliath. David triumphs through his weakness and his victory is imputed to his people. And so does Jesus. It is through his suffering, weakness, and death that the sin is defeated. This vivid and engaging story shows us what it means to declare that we have died with Christ (Rom 6:1–4) and are raised up and seated with him (Eph 2:5 – 6). Jesus is the ultimate champion, our true champion, who did not merely risk his life for us, but who gave it. And now his victory is our victory, and all he has accomplished is imputed to us.” (Tim Keller, Center Church: Doing Balanced, Gospel Centered Ministry in Your City, location 2003, copyright 2012)

Post Script: 5 Things that Salvation is NOT:

  1. Salvation is NOT simply believing that God exists and that Jesus died on the cross. For years, I have have (off and on) engaged in the practice of street evangelism. Living in the south, almost everybody here believes that they are Christians, so if you ask somebody if they are saved, or if they know where they would go if they died tonight, they will almost invariably indicate that they are sure to go to Heaven. They have a genuine belief in the existence of God, but that is NOT a saving faith as defined by Jesus and the apostles. Consider that ALL of the Pharisees and Sadducees believed in God, and that many of them believed that Jesus died on the cross, because they saw it happen. Consider James 2:19 here also, “You believe that there is one God. Good! Even the demons believe that—and shudder.” Mere belief is not salvation.
  2. Salvation is NOT earned by doing good deeds, or keeping God’s commandments. Another common occurrence when talking with people in the south about Jesus is that many people are quick to say that they are trying their best to be a good person and to do good deeds. That is admirable, I suppose, but it is completely inadequate to gain eternal life and salvation. Remember Ephesians 2:8-9, which clearly says that salvation is by grace and NOT by good works. Not even the best among us can possibly earn entrance into Heaven by our good works. Romans 3:20, “For no one will be justified in His sight by the works of the law” AND Galatians 3:10, “For all who rely on the works of the law are under a curse, because it is written: Everyone who does not continue doing everything written in the book of the law is cursed.” If you are relying on good works to save you and attract the attention of God, then you’d better hope you are absolutely PERFECT, and that you have kept EVERYTHING in the book of the law. Spoiler alert: You can’t be perfect for even a day, let alone a lifetime.
  3. Doing miracles, prophesying, and generally appearing to be remarkably spiritual does NOT indicate that you are saved. I have been in churches with some remarkably gifted people who seemed to have an unusual ability to walk in the Spirit. I’ve seen what appeared to be signs, miracles and accurate prophecies, and I rejoice at all such works of the Holy Spirit that are genuine! However, just being able to give a prophetic message, or seemingly perform a miraculous deed does NOT indicate that you are saved, at least according to Jesus. (See Matthew 7:21-23, “Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord!’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only the one who does the will of My Father in heaven. 22 On that day many will say to Me, ‘Lord, Lord, didn’t we prophesy in Your name, drive out demons in Your name, and do many miracles in Your name?’ 23 Then I will announce to them, ‘I never knew you! Depart from Me, you lawbreakers!”) What is a far more reliable indicator of salvation than miracles and prophecy? Spiritual fruit! (Matthew 7:17, “In the same way, every good tree produces good fruit, but a bad tree produces bad fruit.” and Matthew 3:8, “Therefore produce fruit consistent with repentance.”
  4. Salvation is NOT merely a one-time decision to walk the aisles, or pray a prayer. If you are truly saved, you will persevere – continue to follow Jesus. It is possible to believe vainly, or just believe for a moment in time, but in a very superfluous, shallow and ultimately meaningless way. Paul talks about this in 1 Corinthians 15:1-2 (“Now brothers, I want to clarify[a] for you the gospel I proclaimed to you; you received it and have taken your stand on it. You are also saved by it, if you hold to the message I proclaimed to you—unless you believed for no purpose“), and Jesus addresses this in Mark 4:15-19. (”These are the ones along the path where the word is sown: when they hear, immediately Satan comes and takes away the word sown in them. 16 And these are the ones sown on rocky ground: when they hear the word, immediately they receive it with joy. 17 But they have no root in themselves; they are short-lived. When pressure or persecution comes because of the word, they immediately stumble. 18 Others are sown among thorns; these are the ones who hear the word, 19 but the worries of this age, the seduction of wealth, and the desires for other things enter in and choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.“)
  5. Salvation is NOT simply a low-stakes choice you make to follow Jesus in order to avoid Hell. Following Jesus involves dying to your self AND obeying His words. Consider these two challenging passages from Luke 6 and Luke 9:

“Why do you call Me ‘Lord, Lord,’ and don’t do the things I say? 47 I will show you what someone is like who comes to Me, hears My words, and acts on them: 48 He is like a man building a house, who dug deep and laid the foundation on the rock. When the flood came, the river crashed against that house and couldn’t shake it, because it was well built. 49 But the one who hears and does not act is like a man who built a house on the ground without a foundation. The river crashed against it, and immediately it collapsed. And the destruction of that house was great!” (Luke 6:46-49)

Then He said to them all, “If anyone wants to come with Me, he must deny himself, take up his cross daily, and follow Me. 24 For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life because of Me will save it. 25 What is a man benefited if he gains the whole world, yet loses or forfeits himself? 26 For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when He comes in His glory and that of the Father and the holy angels.” (Luke 9:23-26)

Obedience to His commands and dying to your own wishes are both integral components of following Jesus, and thus being saved.

What Happens When People Die? (Life’s Biggest Questions Series #1)

What happens to people immediately after they die? Do they cease to exist? Do they go directly to Heaven or Hell? Is Purgatory an actual thing, or do people just sleep in the dust until Jesus returns? The article below is derived  from a series at our church (Agape in Pinson) that is focused on answering life’s biggest questions.  Most people have a theology – a certain way they think about God and the things of God. When it comes to answering life’s biggest questions, most people turn to their own personal theology to help them. But is that the best way?  How should Christians approach the big questions of life? Maybe we’ve heard things from our parents, or other family members. Maybe we apply our own human logic to those big questions, or  maybe our church or pastor has told us their take. When thinking about these great big questions, it is important to remember that God Himself does NOT think like we do, so it is unlikely that we will arrive at truthful answers to big questions on our own. 

Isaiah 55: 8 “For My thoughts are not your thoughts,and your ways are not My ways.”This is the Lord’s declaration.9 “For as heaven is higher than earth,so My ways are higher than your ways,and My thoughts than your thoughts.”

This means that it is unlikely that we will be able to use flawed human reasoning to answer some of life’s biggest questions. We can, however, turn to the Word of God for answers. In doing so, I propose three simple steps to guide us in answering this question: 

  1. Rather than just focusing on one single verse, we must consider the whole counsel of God. Put another way, to answer the question of what happens when we die, we must attempt to survey all that the Bible has to say about this question, and not just one single Bible verse. The reason for this is that while every passage in the Bible is true – not every passage in the Bible is the COMPLETE truth. For instance, in 1 Corinthians 13, the apostle Paul describes love, and we learn that it is patient, kind, and not at all jealous. All of these are true statements about love, but they aren’t the ONLY true statements about love in the Bible. In order to find out the complete teaching of the Bible about love, we have to go to other passages. In doing so, we find out in the Song of Solomon 8 that not only is love patient, kind and longsuffering…but it is also POWERFUL – as powerful as death. (Song of Solomon 8:6)  Therefore, in order to have a complete understanding of love from the Bible’s perspective, we need the truths in 1 Corinthians 13 AND Song of Solomon 8, among many other passages also. Similarly, to gain a biblical understanding of death – and what happens after death – we have to survey the Word. That is the process of developing a biblical theology – it involves finding out all of what the Bible affirms about a particular topic. 

  2. Our second step is to account for the difference between Old Covenant passages and New Covenant passages. The New Testament must take precedence over the Old Testament, and it must interpret it. More on this later, but consider Hebrews 7:18-19, and note how the New Testament/New Covenant has surpassed the Old. 

    Hebrews 7:18-19,  “So the previous command is annulled because it was weak and unprofitable 19 (for the law perfected nothing), but a better hope is introduced, through which we draw near to God.”


  3. Our third step is ongoing and continuous. With humility, prayer, and the leadership of the Spirit, we must keep returning to the Word of God. We should hold our theology with a degree of humility and repeatedly keep returning to the Scriptures to test and confirm that we are walking in the truth. Like an unmoored ship, we humans have a tendency to drift away from truth, and we must discipline ourselves to return – over and over again – to the authority of the Word of God. 

Now, with that process in mind, we can move forward. I believe the first step in determining what happens when we die is generally survey what the Bible has to say on death itself. The Bible speaks frequently on the topic of death, so a comprehensive overview would be too long for this article, but we can begin with with these three major truths about death in Scripture: 

3 Biblical Truths about Death:

  1. Death is here because of sin. We do NOT usually take this seriously enough. Consider the well known passage Romans 6:23, “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” According to the Bible, sin brings about death, and most Christians could quote that verse. Most however, don’t take it literally, but the case of Ananias and Sapphira, the death of Uzzah, and the case of Moses, tell us that sin LITERALLY can cause death. Think about Exodus 4 – God had just called Moses to lead His rescue mission, but on the way to fulfill that mission, God met Moses and sought to put him to death. Why? Because Moses was sinning by not obeying God’s command to circumcise his son. You can read about that in Exodus 4:24-25, “On the trip, at an overnight campsite, it happened that the Lord confronted him and sought to put him to death. 25 So Zipporah took a flint, cut off her son’s foreskin, and threw it at Moses’ feet. Then she said, “You are a bridegroom of blood to me!” So – death is literally and spiritually the result of sin. (See the below discussion on Genesis 3 for further insight into this dynamic) 

  2. Death is an ENEMY. 1 Corinthians 15: “Then comes the end, when He hands over the kingdom to God the Father, when He abolishes all rule and all authority and power. 25 For He must reign until He puts all His enemies under His feet. 26 The last enemy to be abolished is death.” This is fascinating. The Bible depicts death as an actual enemy – one that will ultimately be abolished! Further, Revelation 20:14 shows that (somehow) death and Hades (the place of the dead) will be tossed into the lake of fire at the Great White Throne Judgment. (keep reading for more on this) 

  3. Death will END one day. I can think of very few things that are better news than what is found in Revelation 21 – one day, death will no longer be a thing – it will be abolished.  Revelation 21, “Then I heard a loud voice from the throne: Look! God’s dwelling is with humanity, and He will live with them. They will be His people, and God Himself will be with them and be their God. 4 He will wipe away every tear from their eyes. Death will no longer exist; grief, crying, and pain will exist no longer, because the previous things have passed away.

Given those basic truths about death from the Bible, we can now move to some more specific verses that actually address what happens after death. I estimate that there are at least two dozen such passages in the Bible, and ten are listed below as an overview:

11 Bible Verses on What happens after Death:

  1. Genesis 3:19 “You will eat bread by the sweat of your brow until you return to the ground, since you were taken from it. For you are dust,
    and you will return to dust.” Hebrews 9:27 “ 27 It is appointed for people to die once—and after this, judgment” MEANING: WE ARE ALL GOING TO DIE! BUT: John 3:16 “For God loved the world in this way: He gave His One and Only Son,so that everyone who believes in Him will not perish but have eternal life.” Summary: According to the Bible, everybody dies (with the exception of those alive when Jesus returns…) but those who are followers of Jesus will not PERISH…or rot away to nothingness, even though they die. 


  2. 2nd Samuel 12: 19 “When David saw that his servants were whispering to each other, he guessed that the baby was dead. So he asked his servants, “Is the baby dead?” “He is dead,” they replied. 20 Then David got up from the ground. He washed, anointed himself, changed his clothes, went to the Lord’s house, and worshiped. Then he went home and requested something to eat. So they served him food, and he ate. 21 His servants asked him, “What did you just do? While the baby was alive, you fasted and wept, but when he died, you got up and ate food.” 22 He answered, “While the baby was alive, I fasted and wept because I thought, ‘Who knows? The Lord may be gracious to me and let him live.’ 23 But now that he is dead, why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I’ll go to him, but he will never return to me.” Summary: In the Old Testament, saints like David believed that there was a place that the dead went after they died. 

  3. Daniel 12:1-3 and 13 “At that time shall arise Michael, the great prince who has charge of your people. And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never has been since there was a nation till that time. But at that time your people shall be delivered, everyone whose name shall be found written in the book. 2 And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. 3 And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky above; and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever… “13 But as for you, go on your way to the end; you will rest, then rise to your destiny at the end of the days.” Summary: Old Testament saints like Daniel believed that, after a period of time dead/sleeping, there would be a resurrection in which the righteous would live forever, and the unrighteous would be punished. But how does the passage comport with a New Testament understanding of 2nd Corinthians 5:8, where Paul seemingly indicates that a Christian, upon death, will be in the presence of Jesus. How can this be if the Christian is sleeping in the ground? (Keep reading!) 

  4. Luke 16:19-26  “There was a rich man who would dress in purple and fine linen, feasting lavishly every day. 20 But a poor man named Lazarus, covered with sores, was left at his gate. 21 He longed to be filled with what fell from the rich man’s table, but instead the dogs would come and lick his sores. 22 One day the poor man died and was carried away by the angels to Abraham’s side. The rich man also died and was buried. 23 And being in torment in Hades, he looked up and saw Abraham a long way off, with Lazarus at his side. 24 ‘Father Abraham!’ he called out, ‘Have mercy on me and send Lazarus to dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, because I am in agony in this flame!’ 25 “‘Son,’ Abraham said, ‘remember that during your life you received your good things, just as Lazarus received bad things, but now he is comforted here, while you are in agony. 26 Besides all this, a great chasm has been fixed between us and you, so that those who want to pass over from here to you cannot; neither can those from there cross over to us.’” Summary: In this teaching of Jesus (note that He does not call a ‘parable’) there is a place of the dead for the good people (where they are comforted) and there is a place of the dead for the bad people (where they are in agony  and in flames, but still able to see, talk and communicate.) The people in both locations can see each other, but they cannot cross over from one place to the other. This place is called “Abraham’s Chest/Side/Bosom,” and Abraham is actually there. The other place, where the rich man is suffering in agony, is called ‘Hades.’ 

  5. Luke 23:39-43 “Then one of the criminals hanging there began to yell insults at Him: “Aren’t You the Messiah? Save Yourself and us!40 But the other answered, rebuking him: “Don’t you even fear God, since you are undergoing the same punishment? 41 We are punished justly, because we’re getting back what we deserve for the things we did, but this man has done nothing wrong.” 42 Then he said, “Jesus, remember me when You come into Your kingdom!” 43 And He said to him, “I assure you: Today you will be with Me in paradise.”  Summary: When Jesus was being crucified, he was not alone – there was one actual criminal (a thief) on either side of Him. One of those criminals insulted Jesus and one defended Him, ultimately putting His faith in Jesus as a King. That second thief is very interesting, and it could be argued that he had more faith than any of Jesus’ other followers, because he KNEW that, even though Jesus was in the midst of dying an awful death, that He was nevertheless a King, and that He was heading to His Kingdom. Jesus’ response to that request was the promise that on that very day, the thief would be with Jesus in ‘Paradise.’ This is a very enlightening passage on what happens immediately after death, perhaps one of the two or three most informative Bible passages that we have. Unfortunately, it is also quite difficult to fully grasp, because we have such little information about the  ‘Paradise’ that Jesus is speaking of. The word itself is used two other times in Scripture. Once, in Revelation, it is noted that the ‘Tree of Life’ (cf Genesis 3-4) is now found in the ‘Paradise of God.’ (Revelation 21:7) That doesn’t help us much, but the only other reference in the Bible to ‘Paradise’ is actually very helpful: 

    I know a man in Christ who was caught up into the third heaven 14 years ago. Whether he was in the body or out of the body, I don’t know, God knows.  I know that this man—whether in the body or out of the body I don’t know, God knows—  was caught up into paradise. He heard inexpressible words, which a man is not allowed to speak” (2nd Corinthians 12:2-4) 

    Taking that passage at face value, we learn that ‘Paradise’ is also called the third heaven, and it is a place that Paul was apparently ‘caught up’ to (either physically or spiritually), and it was a place that words fail to describe. I believe that this means that ‘Paradise’ is the current Heaven (there will be a NEW Heaven – see below) and it is the place where the souls/spirits of those who die in Christ go. In that way, it is analogous to Abraham’s side, mentioned in Luke 16. While I realize that there are some leaps in logic in this paragraph, I don’t think they are unfounded leaps across a bridge too far, this speculation makes the best use of the information given. 


  6. 2 Corinthians 5, “For we know that if our temporary, earthly dwelling is destroyed, we have a building from God, an eternal dwelling in the heavens, not made with hands. 2 Indeed, we groan in this body, desiring to put on our dwelling from heaven, 3 since, when we are clothed, we will not be found naked. 4 Indeed, we groan while we are in this tent, burdened as we are, because we do not want to be unclothed but clothed, so that mortality may be swallowed up by life. 5 And the One who prepared us for this very purpose is God, who gave us the Spirit as a down payment. 6 So, we are always confident and know that while we are at home in the body we are away from the Lord. 7 For we walk by faith, not by sight, 8 and we are confident and satisfied to be out of the body and at home with the Lord. 9 Therefore, whether we are at home or away, we make it our aim to be pleasing to Him. 10 For we must all appear before the tribunal of Christ, so that each may be repaid for what he has done in the body, whether good or worthless.” Similar: Philippians 1 21 For me, living is Christ and dying is gain. 22 Now if I live on in the flesh, this means fruitful work for me; and I don’t know which one I should choose. 23 I am pressured by both. I have the desire to depart and be with Christ—which is far better— 24 but to remain in the flesh is more necessary for you.” Summary: 2nd Corinthians 5:8 is one of the most oft quoted passages by Christians to describe what happens when they die. I believe that here Paul offers a great clue as to what happens directly after death. How can one be absent from their body, and yet present with the Lord? The answer appears to be that our bodies are temporary (Paul euphemistically refers to human bodies as tents or earthly dwellings.) Death involves the (temporary) destruction of our earthly dwellings/bodies and the separation of body and spirit/soul. That humans are composed of a physical and temporal body of flesh AND a soul/spirit is made clear by passages such as Matthew 10:28, 1 Corinthians 5:5, 2nd Corinthians 4:16, James 2:26 and 1 Thessalonians 5:23. Whether humans are tripartite (spirit, soul and body) or bipartite is a question beyond the scope of this article, but the important thing is that the body is designed to be temporary, and death in the Bible is the separation of the body, which dies, from the soul/spirit which lives forever. This is how Paul can say that being absent from his body means that he will be in the presence of the Lord…even though his physical body will actually be dead and buried in the ground. (See Acts 2:29.)  Also note Paul’s description of being alive in Philippians 1:24 – being alive is “remaining in the flesh.” 

  7. 1 Corinthians 15:35 35 “But someone will say, “How are the dead raised? What kind of body will they have when they come?” 36 Foolish one! What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. 37 And as for what you sow—you are not sowing the future body, but only a seed, perhaps of wheat or another grain. 38 But God gives it a body as He wants, and to each of the seeds its own body. … 42 So it is with the resurrection of the dead: Sown in corruption, raised in incorruption; 43 sown in dishonor, raised in glory; sown in weakness, raised in power; 44 sown a natural body, raised a spiritual body.” Summary: Paul uses very vivid imagery here – A dead body is planted in the ground like a seed. And like a seed, it blooms into something completely vibrant and different when Jesus returns. Our current body is corruptible – it will rot, it is prone to injury, it can get fat, or feeble. The Bible teaches that, upon the return of Jesus, Christians will be reunited with a NEW body. Not weak and decaying like the old body, but incorruptible and powerful and immortal. 

  8. 1 Corinthians 15:50 “Brothers, I tell you this: Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, and corruption cannot inherit incorruption. 51 Listen! I am telling you a mystery: We will not all fall asleep, but we will all be changed, 52 in a moment, in the blink of an eye, at the last trumpet.For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we will be changed.53 For this corruptible must be clothed with incorruptibility, and this mortal must be clothed with immortality.54 When this corruptible is clothed with incorruptibility, and this mortal is clothed with immortality,then the saying that is written will take place: Death has been swallowed up in victory.55 Death, where is your victory? Death, where is your sting? 56 Now the sting of death is sin,and the power of sin is the law.57 But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ!” Summary:  As noted above – not all people will die, but all will have transformed bodies upon the return of Jesus. The corruptible/death-prone body will be covered with incorruptability/immorality. This will represent the ultimate defeat of death itself. 

  9. 1st Thessalonians 4:13-18 “We do not want you to be uninformed, brothers, concerning those who are asleep, so that you will not grieve like the rest, who have no hope. 14 Since we believe that Jesus died and rose again, in the same way God will bring with Him those who have fallen asleep through Jesus. 15 For we say this to you by a revelation from the Lord: We who are still alive at the Lord’s coming will certainly have no advantage over those who have fallen asleep. 16 For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the archangel’s voice, and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. 17 Then we who are still alive will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air and so we will always be with the Lord. 18 Therefore encourage one another with these words.” Summary: The blessed hope is the return of Jesus, whereby all Christians (those who have died, and those alive at His return) will be with the Lord forever – in body and soul. One clue about the state and place of souls/spirits of those who have died is found in vs. 14 “God will bring with Him those who have fallen asleep through Jesus.” This appears to mean that Jesus will return with the souls/spirits of the deceased, and when the last trumpet blows, those souls/spirits will be reunited with their bodies. 

  10. Revelation 20:20 “Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven with the key to the abyss and a great chain in his hand. 2 He seized the dragon, that ancient serpent who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for 1,000 years. 3 He threw him into the abyss, closed it, and put a seal on it so that he would no longer deceive the nations until the 1,000 years were completed. After that, he must be released for a short time…..11 Then I saw a great white throne and One seated on it. Earth and heaven fled from His presence, and no place was found for them. 12 I also saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Another book was opened, which is the book of life, and the dead were judged according to their works by what was written in the books.13 Then the sea gave up its dead, and Death and Hades gave up their dead; all were judged according to their works. 14 Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire.15 And anyone not found written in the book of life was thrown into the lake of fire.” Summary: Immediately after the resurrection of the body, and its reuniting with the soul/spirit, there is a judgment – many Christians call it the ‘Great White Throne’ judgment, based on vs. 11. All are judged according to their works while on earth. Those not in Christ experience what the Bible calls a ‘second death,’ in which they are thrown into the lake of fire. They do not die in the lake of fire (as a normal body would…) because they now have immortal bodies. 

  11. Revelation 21:20-21 “Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea no longer existed.2 I also saw the Holy City, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared like a bride adorned for her husband. 3 Then I heard a loud voice from the throne: Look! God’s dwelling is with humanity and He will live with them. They will be His people, and God Himself will be with them and be their God. 4 He will wipe away every tear from their eyes. Death will no longer exist; grief, crying, and pain will exist no longer, because the previous things have passed away.” Summary: Where then do Christians spend eternity in Heaven? According to the plainest sense reading of Revelation 21, NO! They spend eternity in the NEW HEAVEN/NEW EARTH fusion. The first heaven and the first earth will pass away after the Great White Throne judgment, and Christians will live forever in a NEW Heaven/Earth place. Unlike our current state, God will be with us tangibly in every way, and He will end death, suffering, crying, grief and pain! What a thrilling conclusion!! So, if your belief is that Christians spend eternity in heaven…you are only half right! Christians will spend eternity in a completely NEW Heaven/Earth place.  

Now we take all of the above Scriptures and boil it down: What do we learn about death and the intermediate state according to the Bible? In the Old Testament and New Testament, when people died, some Bible passages indicate that they went somewhere – the place of the dead…Sheol/Hades/Paradise. Other Bible passages (like Daniel 12, Acts 2:29) describe death as sleeping (in the dust) in both the Old Testament and New Testament. How could death be like sleeping in the ground AND consciously going somewhere? Is this a paradox or an oxymoron? Paul’s answer indicates that there will be a separation of body and soul/spirit. The body will go in the ground like a seed and die (being transformed and resurrected later), but the essence of who we are (our soul/spirit) will live on. That is why, in 2nd Corinthians 5, Paul describes the human body as a tent (“For we know that if our temporary, earthly dwelling is destroyed, we have a building from God“) The death and destruction of the body is not the end for US. It is also not the end for our bodies. Our bodies will indeed lie in the ground, and decay, but upon the return of Jesus, they will be transformed in an instant and reunited with our spirit/soul. (See: 1 Corinthians 15:52-53)  So, as Luke 16, and many of the above passages demonstrate, those who die as believers in Jesus will, like Lazarus and the faithful thief on the cross, go to Paradise or the side of Abraham, which is a temporary Heavenly place that is good. Those who die apart from Jesus, like the rich man in Luke 16 and the unrepentant thief on the cross, will go to Hades and suffer in agony until Jesus returns. After the return of Jesus, those who are in Christ will live eternally with God in the New Heavens/Earth and those apart from Christ will be thrown, along with death and Satan, into the Lake of Fire/Hell. (See Revelation 19-20, specifically 20:15) 

Thus, the Bible busts some of our myths and misconceptions about what happens after death: 

  • Christians do not die and go to an eternal Heaven. They die and their bodies go into the ground to await the return of Jesus and a change into immortal bodies; their spirit/souls go to Paradise/Abraham’s side/Third Heaven – a good place, but one that is going to be replaced by a new Heaven according to Revelation 21:1.  (2nd Peter 3:13, “But based on His promise, we wait for the new heavens and a new earth, where righteousness will dwell” Also: Isaiah 65:17 and 66:22) 
  • Those who are not in Christ do not die and go to Hell. According to Revelation 19-20, the dead are not thrown into Hell/the Lake of Fire, until AFTER the return of Jesus and the Great White Throne judgment. Prior to this, they go to Hades/The place of the dead, which (according to Luke 16) is a place of agony and flames…but is not the Lake of Fire/Hell. Further confirmation for this is found in Revelation 20:13, which notes that Hades will give up its dead, who will then stand before the throne of God for judgment. (“Then the sea gave up its dead, and Death and Hades gave up their dead; all were judged according to their works.
  • The Devil does not live in Hell now. He is, according to Paul, the “ruler of the power of the air.” He lives on earth at the moment. (See Ephesians 2:1-2, “And you were dead in your trespasses and sins  in which you previously walked according to the ways of this world,  according to the ruler who exercises authority over the lower heavens,  the spirit  now working in the disobedient“)
  • The Devil will NEVER rule over Hell. Instead, he will be tied up and thrown into hell to suffer alongside all of the others who have rejected Christ. (Revelation 20:10 , “The Devil who deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur where the beast and the false prophet are, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.”)
  • There is no indication in Scripture that there is a place like ‘Purgatory’ where some people stay for a little while (according to their sins) and some people stay for a long time. It appears that all who die stay in Paradise/Third Heaven/Abraham’s Side or Hades for the same amount of time, and get out at the same time – right before the Great White Throne judgment. There is no indication in the Bible whatsoever that doing penance or paying for indulgences can decrease people’s time in either of those places. 

Now – it is time for some GREAT NEWS: According to the Word of God, we are coming to an age, in Christ, where THERE WILL BE NO MORE DEATH. DEATH WILL BE ENDED. In Christ, believers will be welcomed into the new heavens and new earth (Revelation 21:1). Unbelievers will be cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:11-15). All people will go to one of those two places, based on whether or not they were in Christ. (John 3:36). As a close to this article, here are two great passages to meditate on: 

ROMANS 8:10 Now if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness. 11 And if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead lives in you, then He who raised Christ from the dead will also bring your mortal bodies to life through[j] His Spirit who lives in you.

Revelation 21:3-5 Then I heard a loud voice from the throne: Look! God’s dwelling is with humanity, and He will live with them. They will be His people, and God Himself will be with them and be their God. 4 He will wipe away every tear from their eyes. Death will no longer exist; grief, crying, and pain will exist no longer, because the previous things have passed away.5 Then the One seated on the throne said, “Look! I am making everything new.” He also said, “Write, because these words are faithful and true.”

12 Amazing Martin Luther King Jr. Quotes + Chapter from my Book, The Bible and Racism.

The following is a complete chapter (on Martin Luther King Jr.) from my 2017 book The Bible and Racism, which is available on Amazon. I’d love for you to read it!   (Click here to purchase the Bible and Racism from Amazon) 


I have lived all of my life in and around Birmingham, the site of many of the great feats and victories of Dr. King and the Civil Rights Struggle. I grew up in this city, born just four years after Dr. King died, and I am grateful for him, for his stance, for his leadership, and for the way he fought a terrible, evil enemy….racism…with grace and humility.

Like many great pastors and preachers of the past, (I’m thinking of Martin Luther and his views on the Jews, John Calvin and his somewhat overblown participation in the Servetus Affair, C.S. Lewis’ apparent advocacy for some type of Universalism in The Last Battle, etc.), Dr. King had some theological failings. There are allegations of infidelity, and his theology can be less than biblical in several places. All of our heroes have sinful flaws – some more than others. Sometimes those flaws move somebody from the realm of Romans 7 (simultaneously sinful, yet justified), to the realm of base hypocrisy, and sometimes they don’t. Honestly, I’m not always sure where that line is. At times, it is quite clear: ‘Bishop’ Eddie Long, who passed last year, was apparently a predatory sex offender and a certain teacher of false doctrine; that he crossed the line many times is abundantly clear. At other times, it is much less so.

Thus we are aware of the flaws of many of our heroes in this day and age. I do not believe the flaws make them more endearing. Sin is sin. My sin is ugly and disgraceful, and not the least bit charming, and so is the sin of all who have come before us. Dr. King had his flaws, but his strengths were even brighter. He was a magnificent preacher and writer. He was patient, humble and long-suffering. In the face of multiplied cruel injustices and hatreds, he managed to keep his composure and dignity and urge a whole generation of people to do the same. There was a certain explosive power in his non-violent advocacy for justice. It was not the power of a squeaky, complaining wheel demanding attention (as so many so called social-justice warriors exhibit today), but the power of a passionate, uncompromising stance for righteousness that rarely, if ever, descended into unnecessary accusation, name-calling, nor antagonism.

Yes, Dr. King accorded himself with dignity, and yet HE FOUGHT. He was the furthest thing from a coward, and when he saw an America that exhibited deep symptoms of racial injustice, prejudice and pride, he rose up and fought with his words, his passion, his suffering and his life. In the face of injustice, sometimes nice people (who are not brave people,) just sit back and do very little – consoling themselves with the idea that their ‘niceness’ demands of them to not overly complain. This approach may well be appropriate when our own individual toes are being stepped on…the world could use much less complaining. However, this approach becomes cowardly in the face of systemic, ingrained brutality and justice that is harming those who cannot defend themselves. As that great English statesmen Edmund Burke wrote, “The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.” Dr. King did the very opposite of nothing, and for that, he has my deep admiration.

Here are a baker’s dozen exceptional and lesser known quotes from Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – most of them taken from his sermons. Enjoy and be edified! 

The first quote is VERY long, but so sublime that I don’t believe that justice will be served by cutting it:  “So American Christians, you may master the intricacies of the English language. You may possess all of the eloquence of articulate speech. But even if you “speak with the tongues of man and angels, and have not love, you are become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.“You may have the gift of prophecy and understanding all mysteries. (1 Corinthians 13) You may be able to break into the storehouse of nature and bring out many insights that men never dreamed were there. You may ascend to the heights of academic achievement, so that you will have all knowledge. You may boast of your great institutions of learning and the boundless extent of your degrees. But all of this amounts to absolutely nothing devoid of love. But even more Americans, you may give your goods to feed the poor. You may give great gifts to charity. You may tower high in philanthropy. But if you have not love it means nothing. You may even give your body to be burned, and die the death of a martyr. Your spilt blood may be a symbol of honor for generations yet unborn, and thousands may praise you as history’s supreme hero. But even so, if you have not love your blood was spilt in vain. You must come to see that it is possible for a man to be self-centered in his self-denial and self-righteous in his self-sacrifice. He may be generous in order to feed his ego and pious in order to feed his pride. Man has the tragic capacity to relegate a heightening virtue to a tragic vice. Without love benevolence becomes egotism, and martyrdom becomes spiritual pride. So the greatest of all virtues is love. It is here that we find the true meaning of the Christian faith. This is at bottom the meaning of the cross. The great event on Calvary signifies more than a meaningless drama that took place on the stage of history. It is a telescope through which we look out into the long vista of eternity and see the love of God breaking forth into time.” Paul’s Letter to American Christians, From a sermon preached in Montgomery, Alabama on November 11, 1956.  This quote quite clearly portrays King in all his giftedness as an exceptional writer and orator. Few preachers of the last 500 years have been able to communicate with this level of eloquence. While eloquence is not the most important thing for one speaking the truth of God – “the Kingdom of God is not talk, but power” – I still admire it when I see it in a state like this. 

I don’t believe meekness means that you are dried up in a very cowardly sense. But I believe it is something that gets in your soul so that you can stand and look at any man with a deep sense of humility, knowing that one day you shall inherit the earth.  That’s the meaning of meekness. That’s what Jesus meant by it. So let us be meek and let us be humble and not go back with arrogance. Our struggle will be lost all over the South if the Negro becomes a victim of undue arrogance.Address at Holt Street Baptist Church to supporters, while celebrating the Supreme Court Ruling in Browder vs. Gayle. November, 1956

Let us look calmly and honestly at ourselves, and we will discover that we too have those same basic desires for recognition, for importance… We all want to be important, to surpass others, to achieve distinction, to lead the parade… It’s a good instinct if you don’t distort it and pervert it. Don’t give it up. Keep feeling the need for being important. Keep feeling the need for being first. But I want you to be first in love. I want you to be first in moral excellence. I want you to be first in generosity. “If you want to be important—wonderful. If you want to be recognized—wonderful. If you want to be great—wonderful. But recognize that he who is greatest among you shall be your servant. That’s a new definition of greatness.” – From “The Drum Major Instinct,” Dr. King’s final sermon, April 4, 1967.

If physical death is the price that some must pay to free their children from a life of permanent psychological death, then nothing could be more honorable. We must somehow confront physical force with soul force and stand up courageously for justice and freedom. And this dynamic unity, this amazing self-respect, this willingness to suffer, and this refusal to hit back will cause the oppressors to become ashamed of their own methods and we will be able to transform enemies into friends.” “Desegregation and the Future” Speech delivered in New York City, December 15, 1956.

“You are deeply in my prayers and thoughts as you confront arrests, threats, bombings and all types of humiliating experiences. Your wise restraint, calm dignity and unflinching courage will be an inspiration to generations yet unborn. History records nothing more majestic and sublime than the determined courage of a people willing to suffer and sacrifice for the cause of freedom. The days ahead may be difficult, but do not despair. Those of use who stand amid the bleak and desolate midnight of man’s inhumanity to man must gain consolation from the fact that there is emerging a bright and glittering daybreak of freedom and justice…Remember. God lives! They that stand against him stand in a tragic and an already declared minority. They that stand with him stand in the glow of the world’s bright tomorrows.December 26, 1956 letter to Birmingham Civil Rights Activist Fred Shuttlesworth.

[Our nonviolent approach] “does not seek to defeat or humiliate the opponent, but to win his friendship and understanding. The nonviolent resister must often voice his protest through non-cooperation or boycotts, but he realizes that non-cooperation and boycotts are not ends within themselves, they are merely means to awaken the sense of moral shame within the opponent. But the end is redemption. The end is reconciliation. The aftermath of nonviolence is the creation of the beloved community, while the aftermath of violence is tragic bitterness.“The Christian Way of Life in Human RelationsAddress delivered to the United Nations in December of 1957.

“This is what Jesus means, I think, in this very passage when he says, “Love your enemy.” And it’s significant that he does not say, “Like your enemy.” Like is a sentimental something, an affectionate something. There are a lot of people that I find it difficult to like. I don’t like what they do to me. I don’t like what they say about me and other people. I don’t like their attitudes. I don’t like some of the things they’re doing. I don’t like them. But Jesus says love them. And love is greater than like. Love is understanding, redemptive goodwill for all men, so that you love everybody, because God loves them. You refuse to do anything that will defeat an individual, because you have agape in your soul. And here you come to the point that you love the individual who does the evil deed, while hating the deed that the person does. This is what Jesus means when he says, “Love your enemy.” This is the way to do it. When the opportunity presents itself when you can defeat your enemy, you must not do it.”  Loving Your Enemies Sermon, preached at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama 1957.  Generally speaking, I reject the “like” vs “love” dichotomy often discussed in our culture, but I do appreciate what Dr. King says here that even when we do not like a person’s stance or behavior, that we still love the person and do not seek their ‘defeating.’ Many internet commentors could learn from this example!

“May I say just a word to those of you who are struggling against this evil. Always be sure that you struggle with Christian methods and Christian weapons. Never succumb to the temptation of becoming bitter. As you press on for justice, be sure to move with dignity and discipline, using only the weapon of love. Let no man pull you so low as to hate him” From a sermon preached in Montgomery, Alabama on November 11, 1956.

One of the amazing things about the protest that will long be remembered is the orderly way it has been conducted. On every hand you have evinced wise restraint and calm dignity. You have carefully avoided animosity, making sure that your methods were rooted in the deep soils of the Christian faith. Because of this, violence has almost been a non-existent factor in our struggle. For such “discipline, generations yet unborn will commend you.December 3, 1956 address to the MIA – Montgomery Improvement Association.

When the man in the parable knocked on his friend’s door and asked for the three loaves of bread, he received the impatient retort, “Do not bother me; the door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed; I cannot get up and give you anything.” How often have men experienced a similar disappointment when at midnight they knock on the door of the church. Millions of Africans, patiently knocking on the door of the Christian church where they seek the bread of social justice, have either been altogether ignored or told to wait until later, which almost always means never. Millions of American Negroes, starving for the want of the bread of freedom, have knocked again and again on the door of so-called white churches, but they have usually been greeted by a cold indifference or a blatant hypocrisy. Even the white religious leaders, who have a heartfelt desire to open the door and provide the bread, are often more cautious than courageous and more prone to follow the expedient than the ethical path. One of the shameful tragedies of history is that the very institution which should remove man from the midnight of racial segregation participates in creating and perpetuating the midnight. From a 1967 sermon entitled, “A Knock at Midnight.”  I agree with this charge, sadly. When the white church in the South should have stood loudly and bravely with the least of these, far too often, they turned their back.

On April 4, 1968, a “Shot rang out in the Memphis sky,” and Dr. King fell mortally wounded. The day before, he had preached a sermon entitled, “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop.” In that message, he addressed how Bull Connor and his racist Birmingham cronies had been overcome:

We aren’t going to let any mace stop us. We are masters in our nonviolent movement in disarming police forces. They don’t know what to do. I’ve seen them so often. I remember in Birmingham, Alabama, when we were in that majestic struggle there, we would move out of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church day after day. By the hundreds we would move out, and Bull Connor would tell them to send the dogs forth, and they did come. But we just went before the dogs singing, “Ain’t gonna let nobody turn me around.”  Bull Connor next would say, “Turn the fire hoses on.” And as I said to you the other night, Bull Connor didn’t know history. He knew a kind of physics that somehow didn’t relate to the trans-physics that we knew about. And that was the fact that there was a certain kind of fire that no water could put out.  And we went before the fire hoses. We had known water. If we were Baptist or some other denominations, we had been immersed. If we were Methodist or some others, we had been sprinkled. But we knew water. That couldn’t stop us.  And we just went on before the dogs and we would look at them, and we’d go on before the water hoses and we would look at it. And we’d just go on singing, “Over my head, I see freedom in the air.” (Yeah) [Applause] And then we would be thrown into paddy wagons, and sometimes we were stacked in there like sardines in a can. (All right) And they would throw us in, and old Bull would say, “Take ’em off.” And they did, and we would just go on in the paddy wagon singing, “We Shall Overcome.” (Yeah) And every now and then we’d get in jail, and we’d see the jailers looking through the windows being moved by our prayers (Yes) and being moved by our words and our songs. (Yes) And there was a power there which Bull Connor couldn’t adjust to (All right), and so we ended up transforming Bull into a steer, and we won our struggle in Birmingham…Who is it that is supposed to articulate the longings and aspirations of the people more than the preacher? Somewhere the preacher must have a kind of fire shut up in his bones (Yes), and whenever injustice is around he must tell it. (Yes) Somehow the preacher must be an Amos, who said, “When God Speaks, who can but prophesy?” (Yes) Again with Amos, “Let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.” April 3, 1968 sermon, the day before Dr. King was assassinated. 

We know more about mathematics, about science, about social science, and philosophy, than we’ve ever known in any period of the world’s history…For our scientific progress over the past years has been amazing. Man through his scientific genius has been able to warp distance and place time in chains, so that today it’s possible to eat breakfast in New York City and supper in London, England. Back in about 1753 it took a letter three days to go from New York City to Washington, and today you can go from here to China in less time than that. It can’t be because man is stagnant in his scientific progress. Man’s scientific genius has been amazing. I think we have to look much deeper than that if we are to find the real cause of man’s problems and the real cause of the world’s ills today. If we are to really find it I think we will have to look in the hearts and souls of men.  The trouble isn’t so much that we don’t know enough, but it’s that we aren’t good enough. The trouble isn’t so much that our scientific genius lags behind, but our moral genius lags behind. The great problem facing modern man is that, that the means by which we live, have outdistanced the spiritual ends for which we live. So we find ourselves caught in a messed-up world. The problem is with man himself and man’s soul. We haven’t learned how to be just and honest and kind and true and loving. And that is the basis of our problem. The real problem is that through our scientific genius we’ve made of the world a neighborhood, but through our moral and spiritual genius we’ve failed to make of it a brotherhood. And the great danger facing us today is not so much the atomic bomb that was created by physical science. Not so much that atomic bomb that you can put in an airplane and drop on the heads of hundreds and thousands of people—as dangerous as that is. But the real danger confronting civilization today is that atomic bomb which lies in the hearts and souls of men, capable of exploding into the vilest of hate and into the most damaging selfishness. That’s the atomic bomb that we’ve got to fear today. The problem is with the men. Within the heart and the souls of men. That is the real basis of our problem.  My friends, all I’m trying to say is that if we are to go forward today, we’ve got to go back and rediscover some mighty precious values that we’ve left behind.  That’s the only way that we would be able to make of our world a better world, and to make of this world what God wants it to be and the real purpose and meaning of it. The only way we can do it is to go back, and rediscover some mighty precious values that we’ve left behind. – Martin Luther King Jr. Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, 1954.

And I wonder why it is that the forces of evil seem to reign supreme and the forces of goodness seem to be trampled over. Every now and then I feel like asking God, Why is it that over so many centuries the forces of injustice have triumphed over the Negro and he has been forced to live under oppression and slavery and exploitation? Why is it, God? Why is it simply because some of your children ask to be treated as first-class human beings they are trampled over, their homes are bombed, their children are pushed from their classrooms, and sometimes little children [referencing Emmett Till] are thrown in the deep waters of Mississippi? Why is it, oh God, that that has to happen? I begin to despair sometimes, it seems that Good Friday has the throne. It seems that the forces of injustice reign supreme. But then in the midst of that something else comes to me.” – Martin Luther King Jr. 1957 Easter Sermon in Montgomery, Alabama, “Questions that Easter Answers.”

The preceding was from a complete chapter (on Martin Luther King Jr.) from my 2017 book The Bible and Racism, which is available on Amazon. I’d love for you to read it! 

10 Powerful Quotes on Race and Racism, Part 2: 6-10. From the Book: The Bible and Racism.

The following post is another excerpt from my new book, The Bible and Racism.  It is available on Amazon and is a 200+ page exploration of what the Bible teaches about race and Jesus’ call for His church to be fully unified – every tribe, tongue, color and nationality worshiping together on earth as in Heaven. I would be honored if you would take a look at it! Here are 5 more powerful quotes from Chapter 14 of the book. I especially appreciate Tony Evan’s challenge that one must be a follower of Jesus FIRST – before one’s nationality, ethnicity, sex, etc. I also think C.S. Lewis’ warning that a ultra-nationalism can easily lead to racism, wars, and other atrocities. 

Note: Here is Part 1 – 10 Quotes on Race and Racism. 

6. For example, here are four pieces of the worldview, all of them undermining racism. First, at creation, all of us created in his image, all of us in his image. There are cataclysmic implications of human beings in the image of God — every kind of human being. Second sin and fall. We are one in our corruption. We are deep in solidarity in sin. You are so sinful and I am so sinful, we’re right there together. There is no exalting of another above another if we are both dead-bent rebels together on our way to hell. How vain is the exaltation of self, one sinner over another sinner? Third, the cross. Christ died to reconcile us both talking about Jews and Gentiles at that moment — in one body to the cross, to Christ through the cross to God, or you were slain.We say to Jesus in Revelation 5:9, “You were slain and by your blood, you ransom people for God from every tribe and tongue and people and nation and you have made them a kingdom, one kingdom and priests to our God.” Why? I said it’s more than a social issue. Whenever I get to talk on this, I want to say to all conservative white folks who fear the social gospel, it’s not a social issue. It’s a blood issue. By your blood, you ransom them, all of them. You die to pull them together, Revelation 5:9. And fourth, faith. Not of works, and I think works means not only anything you do, but any distinctive you have does not commend you to God. Faith commends you to God and faith is a desperate I can’t help myself, which puts you in line with everybody. Therefore, the way into the family is designed to remove all ethnic barriers. (Source: Pastor John Piper Sermon, Race and the Christian, preached in 2012. http://www.desiringgod.org/)

Here, in just under three minutes, pastor John Piper is able to easily and systematically undermine racism with just a few logical and Scriptural points. As Piper says, there are “cataclysmic implications” in the truth of the Imago Dei – that humans are made in the Image of God. One of these implications is made clear in James 3:9, “With [the tongue] we bless our Lord and Father, and with it we curse people who are made in the likeness of God. From the same mouth come blessing and cursing. my brothers, these things ought NOT be so” James :3:9 forbids Christians from cursing anybody with the rationale that ALL are created in the Image of God – I suggest that beating, kidnapping, and forced enslavement would also be banned under that understanding of humans being made in the Imago Dei.

7. The third ingredient [in love of country] is not a sentiment but a belief: a form, even prosaic belief that our own nation, in sober fact, has long been, and still is markedly superior to all others…I once ventured to say to an old clergyman who was voicing this sort of patriotism, “But, sir, aren’t we told that every people thinks its own men the bravest and its own women the fairest in the world?” He replied with total gravity–he could not have been graver if he had been saying the Creed at the alter–“Yes, but in England it’s true.” To be sure, this conviction had not made my friend (God rest his soul) a villain; only an extremely lovable old [butt]. It can however produce [butts] that kick and bite. On the lunatic fringe it [ultra-nationalism] may shade off into that popular Racialism which Christianity and science equally forbid. (Source: C.S. Lewis, the Joyful Christian, p. 189)

Lewis is absolutely right here, if a bit colorful. Nationalism – love of country – is not always a bad thing. It can be a very good thing, but when it becomes an ultimate thing, it gets very, very ugly. It must be remembered that Christians are not first and foremost American, or English, or Laotian, or Korean…but they are first and foremost aliens and strangers in the world, citizens of Heaven. (1 Peter 2:11)

8. We are operating on illegitimate standards that are not rooted in God, but rooted in culture, rooted in history, in background. And all of that may be facts but the question we must ask is: Is it the truth? You can have facts, but it not be the truth. The truth is an objective standard by which reality is measured; it’s God’s point of view on any subject. Just because you were raised a certain way. Once how you were raised disagrees with what God says, how you were raised was wrong! …If our pulpits were right we would have solved this problem of racism a long time ago. Slavery would have been solved, Jim Crow would have been solved, segregation — all of this would have been solved. But because the pulpits were anemic and allowed to take the place of the evil in America, we are still fighting that evil today! Because pulpits were silent biblically on this issue, maintaining a manifest destiny ideology that was in contrast to biblical theology! But that also explains why the Civil Rights movement was able to change it, because the church got out in front of it…Truth overrides tradition! Truth overrides color! Black is only beautiful when it’s biblical! …You must be Christian first. If we could get enough Christians to be Christian before white, Christian before black, Christian before Spanish … it doesn’t take 240 years to fix this. It takes about two minutes and 40 seconds…(Pastor Tony Evans, July 2016 sermon. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=KbhNCTJ-dUI)

Powerful words here from pastor Tony Evans. Though it is a bit of hyperbole to think we could fix racism in under three minutes, I agree that one of the things that have exacerbated racism is anti-biblical, and less than biblical, preaching on race from the pulpit.

9. These representatives of the saints in heaven are said to be around the throne. In the passage in Canticles, where Solomon sings of the King sitting at his table, some render it “a round table.” From this, some expositors, I think, without straining the text, have said, “There is an equality among the saints.” That idea is conveyed by the equal nearness of the four and twenty elders. The condition of glorified spirits in heaven is that of nearness to Christ, clear vision of his glory, constant access to his court, and familiar fellowship with his person: nor is there any difference in this respect between one saint and another, but all the people of God, apostles, martyrs, ministers, or private and obscure Christians, shall all be seated near the throne, where they shall for ever gaze upon their exalted Lord, and be satisfied with his love. They shall all be near to Christ, all ravished with his love, all eating and drinking at the same table with him, all equally beloved as his favourites and friends even if not all equally rewarded as servants.Let believers on earth imitate the saints in heaven in their nearness to Christ. Let us on earth be as the elders are in heaven, sitting around the throne. May Christ be the object of our thoughts, the center of our lives.  Charles H. Spurgeon, Morning and Evening: Daily Readings (London: Passmore & Alabaster, 1896).

Not only did Spurgeon proclaim the equality among saints, but unlike some of the Puritans (who believed the same), Spurgeon’s understanding of equality among saints actually had practical implications that caused him to be an abolitionist and enemy of Victorian racism in England.

10. Go back to 1 Timothy with me. We read over this pretty quickly when we were walking through the first part of 1 Timothy, but I want to take you back there so you can see where Paul has already addressed this kind of slavery in 1 Timothy 1. Look at 1 Timothy 1:8. We will get to it in verse 10, but see the set up. 1 Timothy 1:8-10 says, Now we know that the law is good, if one uses it lawfully, 9 understanding this, that the law is not laid down for the just but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane, for those who strike their fathers and mothers, for murderers, 10 the sexually immoral, men who practice homosexuality, enslavers, liars, perjurers, and whatever else is contrary to sound doctrine, (ESV) What’s the last word? “Enslavers …” the word means literally “man stealers” or “slave dealers.” Anyone who kidnaps people for sale is unholy, profane and is denying the gospel. So, I want you to see very clearly that the Bible condemns, denounces physical abuse and human trafficking. I want to emphasize that for two reasons. One, if these two truths about physical abuse and human trafficking from both testaments … Old Testament and New Testament alike … if these two truths had been embraced by Christians in the 18th and 19th century, slavery would never have existed like it did in the South. The Bible explicitly denounces and condemns the kind of slavery that took place in the Southern United States, and pastors and church members who used this Word to justify their practices were living in sin. (Source: David Platt, “What about Slavery, Paul?,” in David Platt Sermon Archive (Birmingham, AL: David Platt, 2011), 3176.)

An excellent observation, by Southern Baptist IMB president David Platt, that Paul absolutely condemns “enslavers,” which were men that took other men and forced them into slavery. As that practice was at the very heart of the chattel slavery practiced in the United States and United Kingdom, the slavery found in those countries was outlawed biblically. Tragically, Confederate pastors and many other slavery apologists chose to turn a blind eye to passages like this in the Scriptures.

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